Frequently asked questions
Q. What is the idea behind the project?
CO2next, a collaboration between Gasunie, Vopak and Gate terminal, is investigating the development of an independent hub terminal for liquid CO2 on the Maasvlakte in the port of Rotterdam. Such infrastructures are important in the context of the Dutch climate agreement. The independent hub terminal will be able to receive and deliver liquid CO2 via ships and will be connected to the depleted gas fields in the North Sea, offering transport of substantial volumes of CO2 in the near future. This open access system will make the necessary infrastructures available to all market parties, including parties that do not have a direct connection to a CO2 pipeline. In addition, this planned terminal can be an important catalyst in the creation of a market for the reuse of CO2 as a raw material.
Q. What is the timeline? When will FID take place?
This is part of the feasibility study.
Q. When do you expect the results of the feasibility study? Will these be published?
The project is still being investigated.
Q. How do Aramis CCS and CO2next complement each other in the chain?
Both are building a part of the value chain for CO2 storage. For CO2next that is specifically the reception and delivery of liquid CO2 via ships from industrial clusters. The CO2next initiative has direct interfaces with the Aramis initiative, as the intention is to use the Aramis CO2 infrastructure for transport to the depleted oil and/or gas fields. The CO2next terminal will be connected to the Aramis pipeline. Aramis has been scheduled as launching customer of CO2next. In addition, Aramis and CO2next are partly taking a joint approach in the National Coordination Regulation (RCR) of Aramis. This has started in January 2022.
Q. Why do Aramis and CO2next take a joint approach in the permitting process?
Both projects are part of the CCS/CO2 value chain. Subsidy schemes drive for an integrated supply chain approach. Hence, it seems logical to take a joint approach in the permitting process.
Q. What is CO2next’s connection with Porthos?
The exact relation / connection with Porthos will be part of the feasibility study. Although we intend to align with the Porthos timeline, as an independent facilitator we can reschedule to whatever is convenient. In this sense we are not part of the critical timeline of the CO2/CCS value chain.
Q. Will this open access system be open to all emitters, including Rotterdam and Moerdijk?
Basically the access system of CO2next will be open to all emitters.
Q. Does CO2next have to comply with the environmental impact assessment (m.e.r.)?
With the environmental impact assessment (m.e.r.), the environment is given a place in the decision-making process about a plan or project. The expected effects are described in an environmental impact report. Whether CO2next has to submit to the environmental impact assessment (m.e.r.) is part of the feasibility study.
Q. Why does CO2next focus on storage of CO2, and less on CO2 utilization?
As long as sustainable energy resources remain scarce and there is insufficient market for the reuse of CO2, infrastructures to transport and store CO2 in depleted gas fields in the North Sea are important within the near future to achieve the climate goals. Nevertheless, this planned terminal can be an important catalyst in the creation of a market for the reuse of CO2 as a raw material.
Q. How does the balancing of the system work, and what is CO2next’s role?
Transporting CO2 by ship allows a flexible solution. In case access to the Dutch depleted gas fields offshore is prohibited for whatever reason, the CO2 can be transported elsewhere. This planned terminal can be an important catalyst in the creation of a market for the reuse of CO2 as a raw material.
Q. Is there a role for negative emissions?
In the future CO2next can support its customers to realise negative emissions when emitters switch from petroleum to biogenic raw material for the production of biochemical fuels and raw materials. This will lead to net negative emissions in the production process and value chain.
Q. Can emitters apply for subsidy for using CO2next? What are the rules to apply?
SDE++ subsidy schemes allow emitters to submit a request for subsidy when using the CO2next facilities to store CO2 in depleted gas fields in the North Sea.